LEGAL ADDRESS: PRAVDY STREET, BUILDING 34
POSTAL CODE: 142115
LUKOIL is one of the largest international vertically integrated oil and gas companies. The main activities of the Company are exploration and production of oil and gas, production of petroleum products and petrochemical products, as well as sales of manufactured products. The main part of the Company's activities in the exploration and production sector is carried out on the territory of the Russian Federation, the main resource base is Western Siberia.
LUKOIL owns modern oil refining, gas processing and petrochemical plants located in Russia, Eastern and Western Europe, as well as neighboring countries. The Company's products are sold in Russia,
Eastern and Western Europe, the CIS countries and the USA.
LUKOIL is the second largest private oil and gas company in the world in terms of proved hydrocarbon reserves.
The aggregate capacity of Russian refineries is 45.1 million tons of oil per year. Abroad, the Company owns refineries in Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine. Sicily, Italy) and a 45% stake in the TRN refinery (Netherlands). The aggregate capacity of the Company's foreign refineries is 26.4 million tons of oil per year. In 2009, the refineries of the Company (including shares in processing at the ISAB and TRN complexes) processed 62.70 million tons of oil, including 44.46 million tons at Russian ones.
As of the beginning of 2010, the Company's sales network covered 26 countries of the world, including Russia, CIS countries and European countries (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Macedonia, Cyprus, Turkey, Belgium, Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina), as well as the USA, and totaled 199 oil and gas facilities with a total reservoir capacity of 3.13 million m3 and 6,620 gas stations Franchising).
is one of the most popular materials on almost any construction, without which construction work is difficult to imagine. This oil material has valuable water-repellent properties, which is very important in many industries, including pipeline, roofing, road and other works.
The composition of bitumen is very complex, it includes carbons, sulfur, nitrogen, metals and other elements, and depending on the structure, composition and origin, bitumen can have different properties and characteristics. In our country, a high-tech production of bitumen of various types is established: construction, road, roofing, high-melting and insulation.
Insulating bitumen, as is clear from the name, serves as an insulator, and is used very widely in laying the pipeline, as a fuse against moisture.
Road bitumen can be of two types - liquid or viscous. Viscous is indispensable in the construction and repair of roads, and is used for bonding mortar components. A liquid - this is the same viscous bitumen, but liquefied with a special composition, which evaporates naturally after laying the pavement. This bitumen is convenient in that it allows you to significantly extend the terms of work.
Roofing bitumen is of two types - cover and impregnated, and is widely used in the production of roofing.
Bitumen building is popular due to its water-repellent properties, and is used both during the laying of the foundation of the building, and in a variety of other works - from construction of any scale, to major repair work.
Building, roofing, road bitumen is manufactured in strict accordance with all existing standards and GOSTs, on special equipment. Work with this material requires safety (bitumen combustible), and the availability of protective work clothing.
Ship low-viscosity fuel (SMT)
is medium distillate fuel. It is intended for use in ship power plants instead of diesel engines. Components of low viscosity marine fuel are non-hydrotreated direct atmospheric and vacuum distillates, products of secondary origin - light and heavy gas oils of catalytic and thermal cracking, coking.
We work directly with the largest producers in Russia, therefore we offer oil products of only the highest quality.
Mazut - M100
is commonly referred to as a petroleum product, which is either a residual oil product, or a result of oil refining.
Mazut is a hydrocarbon mixture that has a fluid flow structure and a saturated dark brown color, sometimes almost black, and a specific odor. Its composition is complex, and can contain carbons, petroleum resins, carbides, asphaltenes and various organic compounds, including metal impurities such as nickel, magnesium, sodium, iron, and others.
Sometimes mazut obtained as a result of refining is subjected to a repeated process of treatment, under vacuum and with gradually increasing distillation temperature. This product gets the best properties. Mazut may have different parameters and characteristics, which vary depending on what the oil was, and also on the degree of distillate distillate distillation. The properties of mazut can vary such indicators as density, viscosity, pour point and combustion temperature, as well as the presence of certain chemicals.
The field of application of mazut is, as a rule, the fuel industry. Mazut heats industrial boilers, stoves and other heating installations. In addition, mazut is used as a starting material for the manufacture of various types of fuel, engine oil, tar.
It is customary to distinguish between two types of mazut - furnace and naval. The second is used as fuel for various types of water transport. In other cases, the first type is used. They differ in composition (the presence of various additives) and consistency. In general, the fleet mazut has better parameters, for example, its viscosity is lower, water and various additives are less, and also the pour point of the substance is lower.
Mazut often has to be re-processed, primarily with the goal of obtaining distillates, which are subsequently used in various areas of raw materials production. In addition to the distillates, after the technological distillation of mazut, other residual substances remain, which also go into use - in the production of tar, oils and greases, in the coke-chemical industry.
In the fuel industry mazut is almost the most popular type of fuel, and without it - it is impossible to imagine the normal functioning of housing and communal services, industry and production spheres.
Mazut is also popular due to its relatively low cost, and its use is very efficient and economical. Mazut, unlike other types of fuel, is not considered to be seasonal, and its popularity in the warm season is almost as high as in winter, during the heating season.
Diesel fuel - D2
Diesel engines of internal combustion and gas diesel engines work on solar oil. This liquid product is understood as fuel, which is obtained by direct distillation of oil from kerosene gas oil fractions. Thanks to diesel fuel, railway and water transport, trucks and cars, agricultural and military equipment are functioning. Along with the use of diesel fuel in diesel and gas-diesel engines, residual diesel fuel has found its application in boiler houses. This liquid product impregnates the skin. Solar oil is present in lubricating-cooling agents.
Characteristics of Diesel Fuel
There is a distillate low-viscosity fuel, which is used in high-speed engines. Low-speed engines use high-viscosity and residual diesel. Diesel fuel with such characteristics is intended for stationary, tractor and ship units. The distillate liquid product contains hydrotreated kerosene gas oil fractions produced by direct distillation. Also it has in its composition up to 1/5 of the gas oil of coking and katkrekunga. Viscous variant of solar oil is a mixture of kerosene gas oil fractions and fuel oil.
The amount of flammability
The average heat value of diesel fuel is 42624 kJ / kg (10180 kcal / kg). However, the main parameter of diesel fuel is the cetane number (L-45), which indicates the ability of diesel fuel to ignite. This process takes place in the combustion chamber. The degree of ignition is determined by the volume of cetane contained in the mixture with methylnaphthalene. It should be noted that in standard conditions, ASTM D613 fuel has the same flammability with the investigated diesel fuel.
For diesel fuel, the flash point set in ASTM D93 should not exceed 70 ° C. The distillation temperature of diesel oil, determined according to ASTM D86, should not exceed 350 ° C and be below 200 ° C. For summer diesel fuel, the density should not exceed 860 kg / m. Other significant indicators are the flash-point - 62 ° C and the pour point - 5 ° C. Such a liquid product is the result of mixing of hydrotreated, secondary origin and straight-run hydrocarbon fractions that occurred at a boiling temperature of 180-360 ° C.
Winter diesel fuel has a density of not more than 840 kg / m, flash points - 40 ° C and freezing - 35 ° C. Solar oil for winter use is the result of mixing of direct, secondary and hydrotreated hydrocarbon fractions having a boiling temperature of 180-340 ° C. Get winter diesel is available from the summer version. This is done by adding a depressant additive capable of reducing the pour point of the fuel. At the same time, it changes the temperature of the limiting filterability very weakly.
Features of production of winter fuel
The manufacture of winter diesel by handicraft involves the addition of 20% of kerosene to diesel fuel TS-1 or KO in summer diesel fuel. The performance of this fuel remains the same. Arctic diesel fuel has a density of not more than 830 kg / m, flash points - 35 ° C and pouring - 50 ° C. Such diesel can be obtained by mixing direct, secondary and hydrotreated hydrocarbon fractions having a boiling point of 180-330 ° C. The boiling point of arctic fuel is similar to the boiling point of kerosene fractions.
Ways to improve the useful properties of diesel fuel
Pure kerosene has a low cetane number - 35-40 and unsatisfactory lubricating characteristics. To get rid of these flaws, cetane-enhancing additives and mineral oil for engines are introduced into arctic fuel. The latter component improves the lubricating properties. You can also get arctic diesel fuel by dewaxing the summer diesel. Although this method is more expensive. The qualitative diesel fuel should meet GOST 305 82, which establishes the requirements for safety and rules for the acceptance of diesel fuel.
OAO ANK Bashneft is a vertically integrated oil company formed on the basis of the largest enterprises of the fuel and energy sector of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The company is included in the top 10 enterprises of Russia in terms of oil production and in the top 5 - in oil refining.
The products of the enterprises of ANK Bashneft OJSC are sold in Russia, exported to the countries of Eastern and Western Europe, Kazakhstan, Ukraine.
The number of employees of the Company's enterprises is more than 21 500 people.
The company holds licenses for the development of more than 170 oil and gas fields on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, the Nenets Autonomous District, the Orenburg Region and the Republic of Tatarstan.
166 of the Company's fields are in industrial operation. As a result of 2010, ANK Bashneft retained its leadership among domestic vertically integrated oil companies in terms of oil production growth rate with the result of 14.1 million tons of oil.
The refining complex of ANK Bashneft OJSC is represented by three refineries - Ufaneftekhim OJSC, Novo-Ufimsky Refinery OJSC (Novoil) and OJSC Ufa Oil Refinery - and petrochemical enterprise OJSC Ufaorgsintez.
In 2010, the refinery of OAO ANK Bashneft processed 21.2 million tons of oil.
The company produces the bulk of its petroleum products in bulk on the domestic market, and also delivers for export. Trade in petroleum products by small wholesale and retail goes through the marketing network of OAO Bashkirnefteprodukt.
In the future, the Company plans to expand the geography of retail and small-scale wholesale of petroleum products in priority regions.
To date, there are different grades of gasoline, each brand has its own specific properties.
We offer supplies of such gasoline as: 1. AI-95 (Premium-95), 2. AI-80 (Normal-80), 3. AI-92 (Regular-92).
As for the shipment of goods, it is produced by self-transportation, rail and road transport. All consignments of shipped gasoline 92, gasoline 95, gasoline 80 are accompanied by a certificate of conformity for the goods and (or) quality passport. Gasoline is used in engines of reciprocal internal combustion with ignition from a spark. In the field of application, gasoline is divided into two groups: aviation and automobile.
Automobile and aviation gasoline has different conditions of use, however, despite this, they are characterized, as a rule, by common quality properties, which determine their operational and physical and chemical characteristics.
It is necessary that modern aviation and automobile gasolines meet the requirements that guarantee stable and economical operation of the engine and compliance with the requirements: 1. Characterize good vaporisability, which makes it possible to obtain an air-fuel homogeneous mixture of the required composition at very different temperatures; 2. Have a hydrocarbon group composition that guarantees a no-knock and steady combustion process under different modes of engine operation; 3. Do not change its characteristics and composition for prolonged storage. 4. Do not exert negative influence on different parts of the fuel system, rubber products, tanks, etc. In recent years, the environmental characteristics of fuel are becoming increasingly important and come to the fore.
Quality, composition and assortment of automobile gasoline. Most automobile gasoline in Russia is manufactured according to TU 38.001165-97, GOST 2084-77, and also GOST R51105-97. There are 5 grades of motor gasoline, depending on their octane number of GOST 2084-77: A-76, A-72, as well as gasoline AI-93, AI-91 and AI-95. In A-76, A-72, the numbers represent octane numbers, which can be determined with the help of the motor method, and for the last gasolines - by the research method.
There is a noticeable tendency to reduce the need for low-octane gasoline and the growth of high-octane consumption due to the increase in the share of passenger cars in the total car fleet. It should also be noted that gasoline brand A-72 is almost not produced because of the lack of technology that is used on it. The maximum demand for today in gasoline A-92, produced by TU 38.001165-97, but the specific weight of gasoline A-76 in the total production is also quite high.
These specifications describe the brands of gasoline A-96 and A-80. These gasoline are used, as a rule, for export. Gasoline AI-98 is manufactured according to specifications 38.401-58-122-95 and 38.401-58-127-95. Petrol A-80, A-76, AI-92, A-91 and A-96 can be produced using ethyl liquid. AI-91 (low-grade gasoline), which contains lead 0.15 g / dm3 is manufactured according to individual specifications - 38.401-58-86-94. When producing gasoline AI-98 and AI-95, it is not allowed to use alkyl lead-free antiknock. Requirements for motor gasoline and its quality according to GOST 2084-77 are indicated in the table. All gasolines that are produced in accordance with GOST 2084-77 can be divided into winter and summer depending on used in the north-eastern and northern regions throughout all seasons and in other regions from 1. 10 to 1 04.
Summer is used in all areas except for the north-east and north in the period from 1. 04. to 1. 10; In the southern regions, it is possible to use summer gasoline throughout all seasons. The properties of automobile gasolines produced in accordance with GOST 2084-77 differ markedly from international standards, especially according to environmental requirements. To improve the competitiveness of Russian-made gasoline and bring their quality to European standards, there is GOST R 51105-97, it comes into force from 01.01.99 However, this standard does not replace GOST 2084-77, which regulates the manufacture of both leaded, as well as unleaded gasoline. According to GOST R 51105-97, only unleaded gasoline will be produced (with a maximum lead content of not more than 0.01 g / dm3).
RUSSIAN EXPORT BLEND CRUDE OIL
Crude Oil - is extracted from the earth through oil wells. Color of crude oil is usually black, but sometimes the color may vary, for example, it can be yellowish or slightly transparent - all of these properties depend on the ratio of carbohydrates in the crude oil.
The structure consists of a complex mixture of organic matter and carbon. Oil Research Institute found more than five hundred of complex chemical constituents.
List of constituent parts, which are part of crude oil:
Carbohydrates - 90%
Oxygen - 0 to 1%
Hydrogen - from 10 to 15%
Sulphur - 0.1 to 3.0%
Nitrogen - from 0.1 to 0.5%
In composition, each grade of crude oil may have a difference somewhere percentage of sulfur or nitrogen will be more. The composition of crude oil can contain special light materials, which tend to evaporate quickly. There are also varieties of oil, which are substances with a weight, such as a substance like bitumen.
Crude oil is divided into several categories depending on the content in the different fractions of oil and its density - kg / cu. m:
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG)
Natural gas is cooled after removal of impurities to the condensing temperature (-161,5 C) , turns into a liquid called liquefied natural gas (LNG). The volume of gas liquefaction decreases to 600 times, which is one of the main advantages of this technology.
LNG is produced by the so-called Liquefaction plants (factories) and can then be transported in special cryogenic tanks - marine tankers or tanks for land transport. This allows you to deliver the gas to areas that are far away from the main pipelines, traditionally used to transport conventional natural gas.
Natural gas in liquid form long shelf that allows you to create reserves . Before delivery directly to the consumer of LNG is returned to its original gaseous state at regasification terminals.
The first attempts to liquefy natural gas for industrial purposes refer to the beginning of the XX century. In 1917, the U.S. got the first LNG, but the development of pipeline systems deliver far delayed improvement of the technology. In 1941, another attempt was made to produce LNG, but industrial-scale production has reached only the mid-1960s.
In Russia, the construction of the first LNG plant began in 2006 have taken various steps to implement its strategic goal - to become a leader among global energy companies by entering new markets, diversifying activities, and ensuring security of supply. LNG plant at this point is particularly important, as it will expand the geography of "Gazprom" and enter the global LNG market. The ceremonial opening of the plant took place in the winter of 2009.
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on the physical and chemical properties is a high grade fuel for automobile engines. major components of the CIS - propane and butane, which is a by-product of oil refining and gas-gasoline plant.
The gas mixes well with air to form a homogeneous fuel-air mixture, provides a high heating value, does not detonate when burned. In a gas, the minimum content of substances that contribute to carbon deposition polluting power system, as well as corrosive parts. During the combustion of gaseous fuel mixture of hazardous substances released into the atmosphere is formed minimal amount. The CIS consists mainly propane and butane, and ethane, ethylene butylene pentanes. Their total number in relation to the main fraction of gas (propane and butane) does not exceed 5-6%.
LPG components let you create the properties of gaseous fuel engine. while stirring propane guarantees an optimum vapor pressure of the gas mixture, which is particularly important for the operation of gas-cylinder vehicles in various climatic conditions and at different times of the year. Therefore, propane is a desirable component of the CIS.
Bhutan is one of high calorific value and is easily combustible components of the CIS. However, due to the low vapor pressure butane in our country in its pure form as a fuel is not used. Experience in operating gas-cylinder cars showed that the ratio of the CIS propane to butane in the winter should be 70-75% higher than in the summer.
Liquefied petroleum gas is colorless and odorless, so for safety when used in cars give him the special smell - odoriruyut. In our time, a measure of the quality of fuel octane number, which measures detonation resistance of hydrocarbon gases. The higher the octane rating of the fuel, means it is more resistant to detonation. For most of the main components of the gas octane number of 100-115, that is higher than the best grades of gasoline.